On the 11th of November, 1918, the First World War came to an end. Multinational empires (Ottoman Empire, German Empire, Russian Empire, and Austro-Hungarian Empire) broke down into smaller states. Countries that participated in the war signed the Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. This Treaty contained the League of Nations charter, regulated issues of political regime in Europe and determined borders of many European countries. In the period between the World wars geopolitical stature in Central-Eastern Europe has changed.
Dissipation of Austro-Hungarian republic, which included Galicia, Transcarpathians, and Bukovyna, was the result of the First World War. On November 1st, 1918, West Ukrainian People’s Republic (WUPR) was proclaimed on this territory, which led to the breakout of Ukrainian-Polish war (1918-1919). Having defeated in this conflict, Ukraine gave the majority of WUPR territory together with Volyn to the Republic of Poland.
After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire the issue of the future fate of Carpatho-Ukraine became urgent. On January 21st, 1919, at the “Meeting of all Ruthanians, living in Hungary” that took place in Khust, over 400 deputies from all Carpatho-Ukraine declared annexation of the territory to the Ukrainian People’s Republic (UPR). But the critical condition of the UPR Directorate didn’t allow this to happen due to the aggression of Bolshevik Russia.
Towards the end of the First World War during the collapse of big empires Romania found itself in the center of ethno-unifying processes. Skillfully balancing between military-political blocs, it used political and international weakness of Ukraine and took over Ukrainian lands in Bukovyna and Bessarabia.