The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was established in 1946 after the end of the Second World War, when spiritual renaissance of the post-war world was more topical than ever. On November 16th, 1945, the UNESCO Statute was signed and a preparatory committee was established. The Statute was signed by representatives of 37 countries out of 44 present during a meeting and on November 4th, 1946, the Statute came into force. The first UNESCO session took place in Paris from November 19th to December 10th, 1946.
The death of J. Stalin in March 1953 became a starting point for the “thaw” in the Soviet Union and refusal of the state administration to use mass terror as an instrument in the state policy. These processes were accompanied with a rehabilitation of illegally repressed individuals, groups of people and nations. The process of revision of cases of the repressed had started in April 1953.
In 1961, on the basis of the Lviv intelligentsia circle “Moloda muza” Yulian Lavrivskyi launched the first civil, cultural, and educational society “Ruska besida”. Later similar societies appeared in Przemysl, Stanislaviv, Ternopil and other cities. They financed clubs, theatrical groups, reading halls and libraries, organized concerts, literary and music evenings dedicated to M. Shashkevych, T. Shevchenko and others, organized meetings with guests from Central and Eastern Ukraine, etc.
On the wave of Gorbachov’s “reconstruction” in the autumn of 1989, necessary changes to the Constitution were adapted and a new law “On the elections of the USSR deputies” was passed. The Assembly of the USSR deputies that were elected every 5 years was considered the highest state body. The plan was for the Assembly to gather once a year, and in between its sessions the Supreme Council elected from its members was functioning as the governing body.
13.03.1954 – the Comitte of State Security (KGB) affiliated to the Council of Ministers of the USSR was created
In the beginning of February 1954, a minister of Home Affairs of the USSR Serhiy Kruhlov in a corresponding message to the Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union offered to separate operative administrations and departments of the Ministry of Home Affairs (in general 16 out of 40 structural subdivisions) and on their basis to create the Committee of State Security (KGB) affiliated to the Council of the Ministers of the USSR. After discussing this issue on March 13th, 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the UUSR made a decision to launch the KGB; general-colonel Ivan Syerov was appointed as its head.
23.02.1944 – The “Chechevytsya” campaign aimed at the deportation of the Chechen and Ingush peoples has started
The Soviet government considered the Chechens and the Ingush as “punished nations” who during the German-Soviet war committed “treason”: took the side of the fascist occupants, joined the groups of saboteurs and intelligence agents that were sent by the Nazis to the rear of the Red Army, launched armed gangs in order to fight against the Soviet government.
05.02.1944 – Documents on the launch of the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR were signed
On January 28th, 1944, “Pravda” newspaper published the information about the plenary session of the Central Committee of the All-Ukrainian Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) that considered proposals by the USSR Radnarcom “On the broadening of rights of the Union republics in the areas of defense and foreign affairs”. A party planer seemed like an extraordinary event since it was the only plenary session of the Central Committee of the All-Ukrainian Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) that took place during the war. During the 10th session of the Supreme Council of the USSR first convocation (January 28-30), according to the proposal of the People’s commissar of foreign affairs of the USSR V. Molotov, two constitutional laws were adopted – “On the launch of military formations of the Union republics and on the transformation of the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs from all-union into the union-republican people’s commissariat”.
28.01.1929 – The Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists started in Wiena that resulted in the formation of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
The launch of the single organization at the Congress in Wien became the final stage in the formation of Ukrainian nationalistic movement. In 1924, the Group of Ukrainian Nationalistic Youth was created among Ukrainian students and soldiers during their internship in Czechoslovakia. In 1925, in Poděbrady, the League of Ukrainian Nationalists was formed and in 1926 in Galicia the Union of Ukrainian Nationalistic Youth was founded.
19.01.1969 – Jan Palach, who committed set himself on fire as a sign of protest against the occupation of Czechoslovakia, died
The student of the Department of Philosophy of the Karl University Jan Palach together with other Prague students participated in the number of protests against the invasion of Soviet troops into the country. The protests weren’t successful and he decided to take a radical step. On January 16th, 1969, having poured gasoline all over himself, a 20-year old boy set himself on fire near the National Museum on the Wenceslas Square in Prague. Answering the question why he did it he said that he wanted to wake up the society and to voice his protest against the Soviet occupation of the country and the suppression of the “Prague spring”.
16.12.1989 – The revolution in Romania against the communist totalitarian regime and a dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu has began
Since 1965 all the power in the Socialist republic of Romania was centered in the hands of the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party Nicolae Ceauşescu who became a president in 1974. The cult of the person was launched in the country. People called Ceauşescu “the Genius of the Carpathians”, “the Danube of Thoughts”, “the Hero Above All Heroes”, “the Favorite Son of the Nation”. In order to concentrate the power in one hands all key governing positions were held by the members of his family (40 people).
The adoption of this document was inextricably linked with the experience of the Second World War. In particular, on January 6th, 1941, in the address to the Congress the American president Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed four fundamental freedoms that, on his opinion, should have all people in the world: the freedom of speech, the freedom of consciousness, the freedom from fear and the freedom from poverty. These principles became the ideological basis for the participation of the USA in the Second World War and a tool in the hand of democratic countries in their war against Nazism.
In the beginning of the autumn 1918, on the front line of the First World War the troops of Antanta received a significant strategic advantage over the troops of the countries of the Quadruple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey). On September 15th, 1918, the alliance forces broke through the Balkan front, and on September 27th a full-scale offensive took place on the Western front. On September 29th, Bulgaria capitulated, on October 30th – the Ottoman Empire quit the war, and on November 3rd in Padua the truce was signed by the Austro-Hungary – the main alley of the Kaiser Germany.
15.07.1892 – Milena Rudnytska, Ukrainian public and political activist, journalist, writer, head of the administration of “The Union of Ukrainian Women” was born
Milena Rudnytska was born in the town of Zboriv in Ternopil region. After her father’s death the family moved to Lviv, where Milena graduated from a Polish private gymnasium, and in 1910 she entered the faculty of Philosophy of the Lviv University. During the First World War she moved to Vienna in order to continue her education at a local university. There she defended a PhD thesis entitled “Mathematic basics of the Renaissance esthetics” and obtained a PhD degree in philosophy.
22.06.1941 – beginning of the military campaign on the Eastern front of the Second World War. Germany attacks the USSR
On June 22, 1941, at 3.15 am German artillery and aviation unexpectedly attacked Soviet troops. This attack marked the beginning of German-Soviet war, or the military campaign on the Eastern Front of the Second World War. After a few hours all towns in western regions of the USSR, as well as Kyiv, Odessa, Sevastopol, Minsk, and Murmansk were bombarded. The main targets were aerodromes, communication lines, railways, warehouses with ammunition etc.
Starting from an early history of the USSR, treason was always defined as “betrayal of the peasants-workers’ revolution”. In the process of struggle for power, using this definition the Bolsheviks destroyed their opponents. Validation of the Stalin totalitarianism in the end of the 1920s – beginning of the 1930s and preparation for the launch of massive repression in the USSR demanded introducing changes into the Soviet Criminal Codex. Therefore, on June 8th, 1934, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the USSR passed a decree “On amending the decree (on committing state count-revolutionary and especially dangerous for the USSR crimes against the government order) with articles on treason”. On the basis of this document changes were introduced also into the Criminal Codices of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and other Union republics (article 5 “a”-58 “g”). The changes remained as a part of the document until the collapse of the Soviet Union.